Using Roughness in Music to Uncover a Listeners Likes and Dislikes


In this article we are going to learn what it takes to uncover the Listeners’ Likes and dislikes from a whole new perspective. This article is part of a larger 23-part class about music, sound, and consciousness I have been developing called “REtuning the BOdy through ENjoyment of Music And Mind.”

Have you ever wondered if there are any studies specifically on “dissonance” ratios in music? Have you instantly turned off a YouTube music video you were listening to within only a few seconds because it sounded horrible to you? Of course, we all have. We do not find that beat pleasurable. Dissonant ratios are sounds with imperfect tonality…they have a relative “roughness” to their pitch and timbre. We dislike dissonance, or do we really?

There are very few studies trying to uncover what people consider dissonant because as astonishing as it may seem nearly every musician, mathematician and philosopher runs away from the subject. Let’s get to know this subject a little and why this happens.

I believe humanity is recovering from an agenda conceived during the medieval ages to mandate rules for how and what is allowed to be produced in music and sung in choirs. Essentially, the anti-pagan agenda sparked a “forgetting” of what was once considered consonant and what was felt as dissonant in music. What tones can and cannot be played…the police-state of the auditory control of humanity. And for good reason too.


By hiding the free study and use of harmony in one’s life a person may not gain the necessary understanding to reveal to them self a deeper and subconscious knowledge of SELF and connect the harmonic ratios ever-present in Nature in their daily life. This actually may relate to the ego-complex and dissonance itself. A real-life example cold be when someone tells you they love you but they have a sinister smile on their face. Their actions and facial expression do not “match up” with their statement. You and I both wouldn’t believe they actually love us and instead, that they are lying. This would create a dissonance between us in that moment. The tone-of-voice they used to say I love you also is a signal, not to mention the volume of their voice when telling us.

Going all the way back to Ptolemy (1oo A.D.) and prior musical harmony and “consonance” was the capstone quality essential to all music. It was the bearing, the primary gear of how musicians determined if the song was in a masterful resonance and the emotions the music would draw people into experiencing inside themselves. This Consonance Created was not arbitrary: it is determined by a strict law and is immutable as the color series of the rainbow is inside every person at different vibrating ratios (endocrine system and chakrahs). Back in the day JUST Intonation was the tuning method most often using the harmonic series, which are consonant ratios of sounds found in Nature. For example; 1:1 (the fundamental), 2:1 (the octave), 3:2 (the perfect fifth), and 4:3 (the perfect fourth).

matched up partials

Dissonance can be heard, if you will, as the “roughness” or “beats between the harmonics.” The measure of roughness, aka dissonance, is often weighted toward certain intervals because of the prevailing musical-conditioning of the times. The signals we can equate to having a dissonant quality are often calculated by adding together two sine-waves, or harmonic spectra could be another name, to sum up the “roughness” of all the signals in the spectrum under observation.

Amazingly, the tones when coupled together using harmonic spectra, e.g. the net effect of the roughness between all the harmonics being played, produces a graph with notches of consonance exactly at the intervals I mentioned above. The intervals or ratios the musicians all across the ages and cultures have continually uncovered again and again seen above.

critical bandwidth and relative amplitude

In 1965 a paper entitled “Tonal Consonance and Critical Bandwidth,” by researchers Plomp and Levelt suggest “…that the difference between consonant and dissonant intervals is related to beats of adjacent partials.” In addition to the consonance and dissonance aspect of the study they also addressed the role that “critical bandwidth” plays in music. They tested the critical bandwidth by analyzing two songs; one from J.S. Bach and one from A. Dvořák. What they did was to calculate the way in which the intervals were spread out as the function of the frequency, and a number of harmonics were also taken into account. The study discovered that critical bandwidth, or put another way, the “density” of the simultaneous partials, changes its characteristics and affect because of changes in frequency in the same way as the densities of the multitude of partials. There is a strong correlation between how the harmonics vibrating in their overtones “match up” with the partial harmonic frequencies.

Each different type of musical instrument, including human beings and all the ways we can use our voice, make their own complex tones. The discovery in the 1600’s that the tones of musical instruments are composed of partials gave rise to an alternative explanation of consonance. Certain harmonics in the whole sound spectrum produce discernible tones, and overtones, bringing to bear the clarity and strengths of those notes. This so-called strength of the note, in terms of its pitch or “likability” and consonance, is called a partial.

The partial is the lowest possible harmonic frequency which is heard as the musical “pitch” of a note and created by the vibrations traveling over the whole length of a real string, or air column. Typically the frequency of each partial may be calculated by multiplying the fundamental frequency, say 55 hertz, by the number of the note it is in progression with e.g. 55hz=1, 110hz=2, 165hz=3, 220hz=4, etc. Each harmonic inside of the whole vibrating string combine instantly into a steady tone in our ears as the tone color quality forms into its timbre, it’s quality or character; i.e. its strength, and becomes perceived by the listener.


Plomp and Levelt (1965) state, “we assume that the total dissonance of such an interval is equal to the sum of the dissonances in EACH PAIR OF ADJACENT PARTIALS…these presuppositions are rather speculative. In this way, the curves were computed for complex tones consisting of 6 harmonics and shows how the consonance of some intervals, given by simple frequency ratios, depend on frequency.”

Uncovering the Listeners’ Likes and dislikes as you can now see it is a deep topic with many rigorous examples of how the partials of harmonics, the fundamentals, and overtones are all eluding to similar phenomena even though the Listeners’ body and mind is “hearing” sounds, not the math or terminology behind the song or frequency.

Summing up for now when I think about sound waves I imagine them “matching up” inside my hearing perception. There are perfect consonance harmonics (1:1, 1:2, 2:3, 3:4) and even imperfect consonance (4:5, 3:5, 5:6, 5:8) and these “likes” are not an invention of me, but the characters actors, allies, and villains in the sound domain itself. Auditory cognition and subjectivity of course play into this. Dissonance is the consolidation of the shadow of sound whereby other genres of vibration may influence our “dislikes.” Musicians secretly decide what shape the world is!!! Read more about how Hydrogen as a WHOLE OCTAVE unto Itself.

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Fibonacci Art and the Beautiful Proportion – How to use to trade stocks

Beautiful proportion, to our forefathers, was a direct result of the hands of Beings on high. What is thrown around today as knowledge was once vetted by adepts of the mysteries to conjure angels and demons. KNOW, your knowledge is sacred and valuable.

Today let’s look again at FIBONACCI and a trading strategy called Fibonacci Retracement.


Fibonacci Retracement is a valuable tool to add to your arsenal of indicators used to help find important Support (Consonance) & Resistance (Dissonance) levels in a stock chart (Octave).

Top 4 Fibonacci Retracement Mistakes to Avoid

post on Steemit

Hydrogen as a WHOLE OCTAVE unto Itself

If you love music like I do careful consideration of the Sharps & Flats can be expanded to many more topics than one could ever imagine. Hydrogen, Carbon, covalent and ionic bonds, mineral matrices, polarity and magnetic charges. There are so many directions you can take Sharps and Flats. For example, when I took music lessons from a very insightful and giving man named Mark Rossi he taught me that the musical modes played in ancient Greece were not only using the Sharps and Flat notes in a specific numerical sequence, but he knew what CAUSED the modes to sound the way they do. He knows how the Sharps and Flats create the different movements of sounds. At first I was like, so what! But later on it dawned on me that the Sharps and Flats are CAUSED by the interaction of sound moving inside out of itself, forwards, backwards, and into other dimensions. There was a CAUSE to the EFFECT of Sharps and Flats being present in music. The Greek Modes were created by the WAY the Sharps and Flats work with one another, also the dissonance, the way they work against each other.

Sharps and Flats are also the EFFECT of certain ratios of “pressures” in the movement of sound. These are often called the “harmonic series” or “overtones.” These pressures influence the resident qualities of how sound EFFECTS US. (some will bring up gravity or radiation at this point but I will not for now).

sharps and flats
Compressed Spheres

Sound is Magnetic, Sound is Silence taking on the ROLL of Motion and in this two-way universe of EFFECT the most instrumental CAUSE is how STILLNESS is REFLECTED into MOTION. Could there be an application to this principle in the real world? Could this be the secret the Knights Templar were trying to protect? One thing is certain; without knowing he Cause of Things we will never know the Effects.

Okay, I don’t want to take you into some esoteric realm that is too philosophical or simply going to put you asleep from boredom. Let’s take this concept of the Sharps and Flats into today. What we see below are two beautiful examples of PLASMA energy inside a process called Nuclear transmutation. Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or isotope into another. The plasma is 300 Million degrees up to 1 Billion Degrees.  You take take heat from this and convert it to power.  — actually the more promising technologies can go from the plasma straight to electricity bypassing the steam turbine to electricity. For one minute let us entertain the idea that the same polarity concept of a Sharp and Flat in Music is also the SPLITTING of a TONE into its isotopes. But what is an isotope really?

Plasma Fusion

According to Walter Russell; what science found were FULL TONES, not isotopes. Science had numbered the elements from 1 to 92, however, on the presumption that there were no others, and had no alternative but to call them isotopes. In the chemical elements, the sharps and flats are isotopes. Russell says the 5th octave is the balancing of the 9. Put another way, Nature does not begin to split her tones until she has passed TWO OCTAVES beyond carbon which means until Octave #6. “Man is two octaves below God”, accredited to Pythagoras.

Are the 4th and 5th octaves the most important to our “listening?” As we can see nearly all the notes we listen to in music from Equal Temperament Tuning using a chromatic scale fall within the 4th and 5th octave.

et chromatics

Put another way, the fundamentals of 54, 55, 56, and 57 hertz seem to correlate to the vast majority of sounds we “listen” to. So our own musical choices relate to octaves and where we are “tuning into.”

Additionally, Russell once wrote that Hydrogen is not one element, but eight. HYDROGEN is a WHOLE OCTAVE IN itself but Nature has not made it possible for the senses of man to detect this easily. There is a great cosmic see-saw in the universe, the pulses of light are reflections of sound and other forms of movement, and Light is actually DISTILLED by magnetism, meaning; Light is transferred across from one wave-field to another.

Not all radioactive decay or nuclear reactions cause transmutation, but all transmutation is caused by either decay or nuclear reaction. Believe it or not, this is all still about Music and Sound. One day we will C the meaning and be more capable of explaining it.

Walter Russell

“Of even greater importance to the world in this crucial period is the production of unlimited quantities of free hydrogen. This ideal weightless fuel could be transmuted from the atmosphere while in transit without the necessity of storage capacity.” ~ Walter Russell

This topic goes back to the 1920’s and is presently being researched in Universities around the world. Many Memorial Unions at universities have dome-shaped or toroidal-shaped foyers. In their laboratories and experimentation facilities they use the original architectural concepts built into the campus to design the first generation of fusion power plants which will provide ZERO EMISSION POWER for humanity one day. Disruptive, innovative water technologies will capitalize on the $620 Billion global water sector. And you thought the Age of Aquarius had to be “in the future.” NO MORE!

In 1927 Russell transmuted distilled H2O into significant amounts of hydrogen, or helium, or nitrogen, or fluorine – at the Westinghouse Laboratories.


A sudden release of pressure at the edge of the plasma inside a torus or dome, similar, but not the same as, a solar flare; many tiny filament structures in the plasma during a disruption of motion transmutes into a potentially monumentally powerful form of hydrogen called deuterium, one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen. There are now many experiments using helium-3 or deuterium to perform nuclear transmutation and suspend the energy inside a magnetic field.

See: Fusion Projects and Experiments

List of international fusion organizations

We all know the world is ready to greatly increase the efficacy of utilizing technologies that have now become very competitive with the grandpa tech e.g. coal, oil, nuclear radioactive etc. Nuclear Plasma Fusion is going to be a very cost effective and safe option for our pursuits.

Zachary G 

Nuclear fusion within reach VIDEO

Money As A Legal Tender On The Blockchain

Money As A Legal Tender On The Blockchain

For about a month now I’ve been diving down the rabbit hole of history in the financial system from the 1750’s to the present in the United States. How could this have happened? This is the last thing I’d imagine myself doing. This is a topic that will immediately make your eyes glaze over.

Initially my motivation was to investigate the lawful meaning of “**legal tender**” and what it actually is represented by, its origin, and basically to find a modern definition. More specifically, I wanted to know if cryptocurrency could “…act like the U.S. Gold & Silver certificate of yesteryear once did” (Why Legal Tender, 2018). More or less, the paper dollars whose value was backed by real physical precious metal extracted from the land of the Earth.

My original article was also published by the company Quintric in their Newsroom. (view original)

Pictured is a gold certificate used from 1863 to 1933 (although there is the rare 1934 issue) in the United States as a form of paper currency.

Securing Protection of Your Money

One company launching on July 4th, 2018 called Quintric is going to be on the Bitshares blockchain. It’s a digital currency literally backed by physical gold and silver. When you buy this cryptocurrency called Quint (gold) or QuintS (silver) a “…a corresponding amount of real, tangible, legal specie tender is then purchased and vaulted,” and stored on your behalf (Taggart, 2018). Well, there’s the first term most people will not know (if it wasn’t blockchain); specie. No, it’s not a type of Darwinian finch on the Galapagos. Specie is another word for “legal tender,” like coinage, paper notes, banknote, greenback, and dollars.

Unfortunately, my purpose to learn about legal tender quickly shuffled between many topics simultaneously, which was unexpected. I learned the term “legal tender” has a very narrow definition often given as “…any official medium of payment recognized by law that can extinguish public or private debt, or meet a financial obligation” (Taggart, 2018). In other words, anything that will be accepted in payment for debts, public charges, taxes, and dues.

But what about “legal tender” in the way people think of it in everyday life? Legal tender as paper dollar bills, or less commonly, gold and silver.

Before we really get into it I will share that I’m not an advisor nor am I an investor in Quintric. My views of digital precious-metal-backed currency are rather new, so I’m still doing my research before devoting my hard-earned income to this form of digital asset.

The United States Constitution

Once upon a time anyone could stash their money away in gold and silver and retain its value for decades, cashing in only when they reached retirement or there was a family emergency. Today’s global economy entices investors to become hypnotized for demanding that profits soar and dividends increase in price. Despite the copious number of financial products that exist in our modern day, many seasoned investors still turn to gold and silver as the safe-harbor for maintaining their wealth.

Buried deep in the belief about gold and silver is a solidarity and adherence to the United States Constitution which Article I Section 8 reads, in part; “The Congress shall have Power to…Coin Money, regulate the Value Thereof, and of foreign coin, and Fix the Standard of Weights and Measures.”

Additionally, in Article II Section 10 of the Constitution it reads: “NO STATE shall…coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts.”

In other words, Congress can coin the money as gold and silver but the STATES CANNOT make any coins or bills. STATES can ONLY USE gold and silver as legal tender.

Again, STATES DO have the permission and authority to use gold and silver as money and/or legal tender.

STATES DO NOT have the ability to print any paper money as legal tender.

“The power to make anything but Gold and Silver a tender in payment of Debts, is withdrawn from the States, on the same principle with that of issuing a paper currency” (Madison, 1788).

On the matter of paper money, Charles Pinckney of South Carolina produced a draft of a Constitution that read in Article XIII, “No state, without the consent of the legislature of the United States, shall emit bills of credit, or make anything but specie a tender in payment of debts.”

Many early founders of the United States of America preferred paper money to precious metals. As a result, paper money became legal tender in 1862. However, STATES could not print their own paper money. Please be aware of the large distinction between paper money and paper notes (banknotes). For example, paper money is backed by physical gold and silver and paper notes are nothing more than a representation of the debt the government is willing to take on, and it is not backed by anything of value.

Congress is the ONLY body which can regulate the value and they have the exclusive ability to determine what will be legal tender. Pursuant to that authority, Congress has declared that, “United States coins and currency (including Federal Reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal Reserve banks and national banks) are legal tender for all debts, public charges, taxes, and dues. Foreign gold or silver coins are not legal tender for debts” (Legal Tender, 1983).

Gold and silver coins are considered money (because they are made of precious metal) as well as a legal tender; while currency (paper notes and / or fiat) is only legal tender and NOT money as it once promised payment in redeemable precious metal.

Made by fiat means made by government. Legal tender currency is a promissory note ISSUED and BACKED by the US government that used to promise payment in gold or silver coins. In spite of fiat dollars acting as paper money, even the U.S. Treasury plainly exposes the following on their website:

Fiat money is made by government decree whereas real money is gold and silver and is forged in the Earth (ie. not connected to fiat).

How is Fiat Currency Created?

In the early 1980’s courts concluded paper notes have a constitutional basis including a central bank, and the Federal Reserve in particular. The court confirmed in Nixon v. Phillipoff (1985) that the United States Constitution gives CONGRESS the right to coin money, this includes fiat currency (e.g. paper notes).

How is fiat currency created? In current economic systems, fiat is created by two procedures.

First, by a central bank minting coins and printing paper banknotes. This type of legal tender currency is called narrow money, or M0, and is the normal everyday liquid mediums of exchange like coins, dollars, and balances held in your bank account. Second, bank money, or broad money (M1 / M2) is the money created by private banks through the recording of loans as deposits of borrowing clients. Currently, bank money is created as digital currency.

In most countries, the majority of currency is created as digital M1 / M2 by commercial banks making loans. However, contrary to some popular misconceptions, banks do not act simply as intermediaries, lending out deposits that savers place with them, and do not depend on central bank money (M0) to create new loans and deposits. Some of you may recognize this second type of currency as the application of the fractional reserve system.

A full-fledged digital world of crypto-economics is rapidly emerging and many businesses are taking the steps to align themselves with accepting digital currencies beyond normal legal tender. Today, virtual currencies and digital representations used as a store of value or medium of exchange are not recognized as legal tender, except in a couple countries.

If there comes a time we can pay for our groceries, utilities, our gas, or our taxes with crypto-currency and other digital assets; then we can move away from using Federal Reserve notes.

Digital Legal Tender and Smart Contracts

Here’s where we look at smart contracts! Just a few of the advantages using smart contracts are; transactions are often immutable, there can be complete trust between parties to an agreement, in many instances there’s automation in business, full transparency (and privacy), it removes human errors, and smart contracts exclude intermediaries.

According to Nick Szabo, a pioneer of Bitcoin and legal scholar, a smart contract is “a set of promises, specified in digital form, including protocols within which the parties perform on these promises” (Szabo, 1996).

As described earlier in this article there can also exist smart contracts backed by lawful specie legal tender coins represented on the blockchain as tokens, essentially a certificate for gold or silver. One obstacle to the mass adoption of crypto-currency is how crucial it will be in the corporate sector where risks are higher and responsibilities larger for accepting or investing in digital currency to be fraudless and legal.

The Laws About Gold & Silver

Precious metals products are often beyond U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) jurisdiction because federal regulatory authority was formalized in 1983 and 1984.

In those years many fraudulent companies were found to have been selling precious metals, primarily gold, through shady tele-marketing campaigns. Gold buyers nationwide were lured in with advertisements touting the firms’ safe storage facilities and reputable brokers.

In the end hundreds of millions of dollars in investments cost over 50,000 people their hard-earned dollars. Selling non-existent Gold was the goal. Making outlandish claims and oral misrepresentations of twisted facts about the legitimacy of these “boiler rooms” triggered a massive SEC and CFTC crackdown.

The numerous gold schemes were following the Coinage Act of 1965 when silver was removed from legal tender coins such as dimes and quarters.

Then only a few short years later in 1971 President Nixon cancelled being able to convert dollars directly into gold, ending the agreement between 44 countries called Bretton Woods.

From Physical to Digital

Another way of stating the obvious, real money like gold was removed as the backing of the value for the existence of the US Dollar as its currency.

The outgrowth of scams and gold precious metals trading in the 1980’s was born from a prolonged period where the public could not keep large amounts of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency.

Finally, in 1974 a bill from Congress legalized private ownership of gold and silver coins, bars and certificates, causing a multitude of new forms of precious metals investments. This is the same year the CFTC was formed.

Speculative and non-speculative gold and silver markets and commodities trading on exchanges regulated by the CFTC also opened the Futures markets and Options Contracts.

Then in 1983, in the wake of the gold and silver scandals, a Senate subcommittee investigated metals dealers to determine what regulatory system they fell under.

In one hilarious 1983 Chicago Tribune news story a best-selling author named Jerome F. Smith who wrote the book “The Coming Currency Collapse” was paid off by a Bullion Reserve to author a four-page opinion letter sent to over 90,000 precious metals investors stating without hesitation that they could fully trust the company. He put his name and reputation on the line with his endorsement and eventually the Federal Trade Commission uncovered over 200 instances when buyers did not receive their requested delivery of their metals.

The SEC says precious metals themselves are not securities and that their trading does not require registration under the federal securities laws. The response of the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933 has held that when the purchase and sale of gold and silver with a recognized precious metals dealer happens then registration with the SEC will not be required.

In other words, precious metals investing is not considered to operate under regulations as a security, even if buyers are charged a percentage above “spot” prices and including storage, delivery, fabrication, vaulting, insurance, and certificates not designating a particular serial-numbered piece of bullion in the inventory.

To summarize, the SEC does not require metals dealers to register as a security and gives them the flexibility to offer their customers options for taking delivery of their precious metals or receiving a storage receipt or purchase certificate.

In fact, so many brokerage houses and banks wrote the SEC to request a “no-action letter” be issued stating the company was not a security, that the SEC released their own letter saying they would no longer respond to requests for no-action letters.

So long as the metals dealers do not give investment advice, and they generally act only as the purchase or sale agent they are safe from regulation. The agent performs “merely ministerial functions unrelated to the production of profits.” (see Howey cases and “common enterprise”).

Another important factor is no money from buyers of precious metals gets “pooled” for the purpose of investment.

Lastly, under the The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 the SEC advocates for the omission of any secondary trading markets between persons through metals dealers. This idea is the key in terms of regulation because when the ownership of metals is represented by a receipt or certificate there can be no secondary “market.” A secondary market for metals is defined as buying or selling precious metals from or to a party other than the original source.

Metals firms may operate perilously close to the jurisdiction of the SEC and CFTC because if there exists a “common enterprise” any investors who may be led to believe by the metals dealer they can expect some profits, then this oversight may well turn a non-security into a security.

If the metals dealer also expects profits from their advising the precious metals investor they may be required to register as an Advisor because of The Investment Advisors Act of 1940.

Two Ways to Invest in Precious Metals

Method 1: Buy Gold & Silver at a fixed price and have it delivered in the postal mail (paying with a check)

a) Broker-dealers, banks, metal dealers, or futures commission merchants can act as intermediaries or agents for their customers in the purchase of precious metals

          (1) A brokerage firm or bank may purchase gold or silver coins on behalf of the customers and charge a Premium over the “spot” price of the precious metals

Method 2: Buy Bullion at a negotiated price through a bank or broker-dealer and NOT have it delivered in the postal mail

a) The physical precious metals are represented by a certificate allowing the buyer to take legal title to a specified quantity of gold or silver bars

          (1) The certificate entitles the buyer to immediate or future delivery of the bullion

                    (a) Once payment has cleared the delivery of the “certificate” to the buyer spells out the quantity of metal purchased (paying with a debit or credit card)

The broker-dealer will then set aside the precious metals within their inventory and store it for the buyer

The broker-dealer with then buy new precious metals in the cash markets or offset its liability in the futures market

Digital Legal Tender

Notice Method 2 above for investing in precious metals is using a “certificate” or “contract” and payment is often taking place digitally? Let’s now extend beyond the above examples to include the issuance of digital legal tender by the STATES, and if that’s legal or not.

If a STATE cannot create printed notes then presumably the STATE cannot create its own currency no matter what form it takes as paper notes or crypto-currency? According to The Merkle, “…not everyone in the US is legally allowed to issue their own digital currency, regardless of what it is backed by” (Buntinx, 2018).

STATES may not have the authority to regulate cryptocurrencies because STATES cannot make currency, they can only allow legal tender as money in the forms of gold, silver, and as currency in the form of fiat dollars. Obviously the fiat dollars can also take the form of electronic or digital currency.

What this could mean is, if a STATE cannot issue anything other than money / legal tender gold or silver, then how would issuing a digital crypto-currency as a security or commodity be legal? Even moreso, how about an individual or company creating a new crypto-currency with no registration with the SEC? In nearly every case, if the backing of the digital currency is not legal tender then this begs the question; is it legal at all?

In conclusion, if a digital asset is not directly tied to a legal tender issued by Congress (through the Federal Reserve) or a State govenment, then it’s issuance is subject to future regulation by these entities.


Buntinx, JP. (2018, March 15). New Stablecoins Backed by Gold and Silver Emerge. Retrieved from

Legal tender § 5103, 31 U.S. Code (1983).

Madison, J. (January 25, 1788). Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States From the New York Packet. New York Packet, Federalist No. 44. Retrieved from

Taggart, M. (2018, March 12). Legal Tender, Precious Metals, and the Currency of the Future. Retrieved from

Taggart, M. (2018, April 29). So How Does Quint Work Anyway?. Retrieved from

Why Legal Tender?. (2018). Retrieved from

also see: How Blockchain Can Transform Currency

If you want to take the Quintric model for a spin, they have an Escrow Service where you can exchange fiat, bullion or crypto for their gold/silver-based monetary tokens.